During the peak of the Cold War within the 20th century, the mere considered a really emancipated Africa teeming with natural, contextual, participatory, and liberatory democracy impressed furious fury within the minds of Western imperialists.
This was aggravated the place sure African governments within the rapid post-colonial period of the 20th century selected to take their very own paths of self-determination that have been averse to Western capitalism. They have been swiftly branded “Communist” and have become an evil that needed to be wiped from the face of the earth.
In 1957 when Ghana brimmed with unprecedented revolutionary zest that torched the entire continent with majority rule imaginings – the primary African nation to achieve independence – the CIA considered it with enigmatic lenses due to its “place in history”. Kwame Nkrumah’s revolutionary charisma radiated African self-determination that threatened Western imperialism within the context of the Cold War.
The similar utilized for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) which freed itself from Belgian colonial rule in 1960 beneath the management of Patrice Lumumba, a fiercely principled African nationalist who upheld the maxim of “positive neutrality”.
Africa’s revolutionary luminaries who embody Kwame Nkrumah, Patrice Lumumba, and Frantz Fanon have been conscious about the “imperialism not necessarily from Europe” at a time they have been creating new paths of self-rule for the continent at giant. In 1958, Nkrumah’s Ghana hosted an African convention attended by 300 plus leaders from twenty-eight African territories, together with Lumumba and Fanon. Nkrumah’s intention was to dilute the euphoria of independence with reasonable, stern warnings of interference on the occasion of “imperialist and capitalist forces”.
The independence of those two international locations held unmatched political symbolism – the independence of those two international locations portended the independence of the remainder of Africa, and imperial interference compromising such independence signalled the publicity of Africa’s sovereignty and independence to “grave risk”, within the phrases of Nkrumah on the convention.
The resource-rich DRC was too profitable to move over to “African radical communists” – regardless that Lumumba as soon as proclaimed, “I am not a Communist … I am a revolutionary [demanding] the abolition of the colonial regime which ignored our human dignity.” Just shortly after being democratically elected as DRC’s first prime minister, he was ruthlessly assassinated in a plan orchestrated by the CIA. America’s pursuits then have been vested within the Congo’s uranium deposits.
Nkrumah, deeply devastated with Lumumba’s assassination, additionally fell to predatory and megalomaniac machinations of the CIA when he was deposed as Ghana’s chief through a coup in 1966. His stern warnings about imperialist interference – this time from the CIA – have been crystallized with the materialization of those two occasions: Lumumba’s assassination and the coup that deposed Nkrumah. Puppet governments subservient to American and Western pursuits have been put in: within the DRC, it was the callous Mobutu Sese Seko.
The nationalist actions for liberation in Zimbabwe and Mozambique have been intricately woven as the 2 neighbouring international locations fought facet by facet to achieve majority rule for black Africans. Mozambique received majority rule in 1975 following the departure of Portuguese colonial settlers, with Zimbabwe attaining majority rule in 1980.
When Mozambique obtained its independence beneath the astute management of the honored chief Samora Machel in 1975, it posed severe existential threats to the colonial states of Rhodesia and apartheid South Africa.
The sovereignty of Mozambique, avowedly constructed on Leftism (socialism/communism), served as a liberatory channel for Zimbabwean nationalists engaged in an acrimonious guerrilla warfare with Rhodesia. The latter relied on a dependable ally – apartheid South Africa. White Rhodesia and South Africa didn’t hesitate to enlist the assistance of the CIA.
Initially, Rhodesia’s Central Intelligence created the Mozambican National Resistance Army (RENAMO), a insurgent group led by Alfonso Dhlakama to weaken ZANLA and FRELIMO by pushing an anti-communist agenda. Apartheid South Africa continued to fund and assist RENAMO with the assistance of the CIA (after Zimbabwe obtained independence).
This resulted in a bitter civil struggle that lasted from 1975 until a ceasefire was agreed in 1992. CIA covertly supported RENAMO, however later grew skeptical of it saying that Dhlakama didn’t match Machel’s political stature. Machel died in a mysterious aircraft crash in 1986 close to South Africa’s border.
Of significance to notice too is the Angolan civil struggle after its independence in 1975 – heightened by the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale in 1988.
It was an ideological struggle pitting the Marxist inclined Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) supported by Cuba, the Soviet Union, and different African liberation actions together with South Africa’s ANC and South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO) and the Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), a insurgent group led by Jonas Savimbi (just like RENAMO) – it acquired anti-communist assist from America’s CIA and apartheid South Africa.
However, the battle was a turning level in Southern Africa’s historical past that in the end led to the independence of Namibia.
The CIA, even with out superimposing the colonial hegemony just like that of European powers, was pushed by the frenzied reactions of the Cold War during which the “fear of communism” justified interference through coups and proxy wars.
This destabilized the muse for natural paths of self-determination that new African nation states sought to carve for his or her collective well-being.
The CIA should not conceal behind the historic amnesia brought on by profound company secrecy – it have to be held accountable for its “drunkenness” with energy laden with homicide [but without the will to openly effect (neo)colonial regimes] that destabilized post-colonial African makes an attempt in the direction of emancipatory independence and sovereignty.